Exercise 1

Choose so, because, but, although to complete the sentences below.

1 We couldn't find a taxi, we walked home

2 it was very cold, she wasn't wearing a coat.

3 I woke up there was a noise.

4 I called him his mobile was turned off.

5 she's very nice, she doesn't have many friends.

6 There was nothing on TV, I went to bed.

7 All the cafés were full it was a public holiday.

8 She studied quite hard she failed the exam.

9 She was crying her team lost the match

10 They wanted to win it was impossible


 

 

Contrast

 

however

 
However means ‘but’.

However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, he had a good time.
  • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 

 

although

 
Although means ‘despite the fact that’, or ‘but’.

Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

  • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
  • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.

 

Reason

 

because

 
We use because + subject + verb.

  • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
  • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.

 

because of

 
We use because of + noun.

  • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
  • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 

 

Result

 

so

 
So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

  • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
  • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 

 

Time

 

before

 
We use can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

  • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 

 

after

 
We use can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

  • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

When we are talking about consecutive actions, we can use then of after that, but we cannot use *after.

  • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. (NOT After, I made breakfast).

 

while

 
We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

  • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.

 

as soon as, when, once

 
As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

  • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

We use present simple, and NOT will to express future after as soon as, when, and once.

  • When I get home, I’ll call you. (NOT when I will get home)

We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

  • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
  • I brush my teeth before I go to bed. 

 


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