Exercise 1

Choose the correct forms, don’t have to, mustn’t, to complete the sentences below.

1You apologise; it isn't necessary.

2You tell the boss what happened, or he'll fire you.

3I wear a tie; I do it because I like wearing ties.

4You smoke in here; smoking is not allowed.

5I be late. It's the most important meeting of the year.

6You go now; you can stay a bit longer.

7Visitors to the zoo feed the animals.

8You drive so fast; we have a lot of time.

9We cook more; there's enough food.

10You put salt in her food; the doctor said she can't eat salt.


 

 

have to, don’t have to, must, mustn’t – table

 
have to, don't have to, must, mustn't
 

have to/don’t have to

 

Rules and obligations

 
We use have to talk about rules and obligations, something that is necessary.

  • I have to get to work before 7 tomorrow.
  • The car broke down and we had to call a taxi.

 

do and did for the negative and interrogative forms

 
The verb have in have to is not an auxiliary verb. We need do/don’t does/doesn’t, did/didn’t to make questions and negative sentences.

  • Do you have to get up early tomorrow? (NOT Have you to get up early…)
  • Did you have to buy a new sound card?
  • We don’t have to stay until the end.

 

No contraction

 
The verb have in have to cannot be contracted to ‘ve.

  • I have to study for the exam tomorrow. (NOT I’ve to study…)

 

Don’t need to

 
If you don’t have to do something, it means that you ‘don’t need to’ do something (there is no obligation).

  • You don’t have to pick me up at the station. I can take a taxi. (=You can pick me up, but you don’t need to do it).

 

must/mustn’t

 

Rules and obligations

 
Must is very similar to have to. We use must + infinitive (without to) to talk about rules and obligations.

  • I must go to the doctor.
  • I must get up early tomorrow.

 

Prohibition

 
We use mustn’t to talk about something that you can’t do (prohibition).

  • You mustn’t call me before 8. (=You can’t call me before 8)
  • I mustn’t lose my concentration now.

 

Difference between have to and must

 

External obligation or obligation imposed by the speaker

 
We normally use have to when there’s an external obligation, and must when the obligation comes from the opinion of the speaker.

  • We have to get up early tomorrow. The meeting is at nine. (External obligation)
  • We must get up early tomorrow if we want to finish painting. (It’s the speaker’s opinion)
  • You must be more patient. (It’s the speaker’s opinion)

 

Past and future forms

 
Only have to can have a past and future form. Must does not have a past or future form.

  • I had to take a taxi because it was raining.
  • You will have to take a taxi if it rains tomorrow. (NOT will must)

 

Difference between don’t have to and mustn’t

 

don’t have to= not necessary; no obligation

 
Don’t have to and mustn’t have opposite meanings. We say that we don’t have to do something when we don’t need to do something; we can do it, but it’s not necessary.

  • You don’t have to wait here. (=You can do it, but it’s not necessary)

 

mustn’t = necessary; prohibition

 
We say that we mustn’t do something when we cannot do something; it is necessary that we don’t do something (prohibition).

  • You mustn’t wait here. (=You can’t do it; it’s against the rules)

 


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